According to biophilic design thought leaders. architect Elizabeth Calabrese, AIA, LEEP AP, and the late Dr. Stephen Kellert, biophilic design strategies fit into one of three major experiences: direct experience of nature, indirect experience of nature, and experience of space and place. There are 24 individual attributes of biophilic design. They include:
- Direct experience: contact with green elements such as plants, views of nature, water, and natural airflow.
- Indirect experience: the use of natural materials such as wood or natural fabrics like cotton and wool, exposure to images of nature in artwork, natural shapes and forms
- Experience of space and place: prospect and refuse, integration of parts to whole, cultural and ecological attachment to place