How is biophilic design applied to interior spaces?

According to biophilic design thought leaders. architect Elizabeth Calabrese, AIA, LEEP AP, and the late Dr. Stephen Kellert, biophilic design strategies fit into one of three major experiences: direct experience of nature, indirect experience of nature, and experience of space and place. There are 24 individual attributes of biophilic design. They include:

  • Direct experience: contact with green elements such as plants, views of nature, water, and natural airflow.
  • Indirect experience: the use of natural materials such as wood or natural fabrics like cotton and wool, exposure to images of nature in artwork, natural shapes and forms
  • Experience of space and place: prospect and refuse, integration of parts to whole, cultural and ecological attachment to place